Kangxi, the grandfather of Qianlong, claimed to know science best among emperors of all dynasties.
It is said that in order to understand human anatomy, he himself dissected a hibernating bear.
He used to be a Belgian missionary Nan Huairen as his astronomy and mathematics teacher. He also studied geometry, algebra and other courses to two French missionaries.
Who can imagine? More than 300 years ago, when almost all Chinese knew nothing about the concept of the earth, their emperor had played logarithm and square roots in the palace of the Forbidden City.
But this is exactly what Kangxi wants: the science thing I know is good, you do not need to know, nor can you know.
He wants to monopolize power and monopolize new knowledge.
In the true sense of science and technology books, he not only encourages translation but also tries to prohibit it, especially prohibiting the flow to the public.
As early as Kangxi in twenty years (1681), South Huairen made steam driven toys. Kangxi always locked it into the palace as a plaything.
In the same period of Russia with Kangxi the great, Peter came out.
Peter is also fascinated by technology. He deliberately concealed the emperor's identity and traveled to Western Europe like an ordinary person.
In Sweden, as an ordinary tourist, he climbed to the commanding heights of the country, surveying and mapping the situation of the fortress.
In England, he changed his mind and became a scholar, visiting Newton, and making friends with mathematician Fjason to discuss academic problems.
Most importantly, he turned his personal fascination with technology into national decision-making and action. He modeled schools in Western Europe, set up mathematics and marine schools, artillery academy and so on.
Science and technology are not monopolized by emperors. It will ultimately serve the purpose of revitalizing the country.
Peter has a famous saying: "As a monarch, I am very ashamed to be behind his own official."
This sentence, Kangxi, sun and three people will be ignorant when they hear it. Kangxi will ask what "backward" is. Yong Zheng will ask what "Chen is". Qianlong will ask "ashamed" what it is.
Along Kangxi's road, along the path of Peter, China and Russia have gone through two parallel lines. When they came together again in modern times, one was forced to beg for mercy from another.
Kangxi and Peter are also contemporaries.
Kangxi and his descendants are afraid of marine civilization.
When Britain and France expanded the shipbuilding industry and vigorously carried out overseas colonial trade, the Qing court stipulated:
"If we build a pair of mast above five hundred stones or above, we will send soldiers to the sea, regardless of the officers and men.
China could have made huge sailboats and set sail on the ocean. In the period of Kangyong and Qian Dynasty, the navigation industry of all countries in the world was advancing by leaps and bounds.
Kangxi worried about the emergence of southeast coastal areas in his later years. "Zheng Chenggong second" 。
He made a decree that when he was on the South patrol, he visited some of the shipyards in Suzhou privately, only to know that there were thousands of vessels going to sea trade every year, but only five or six of them came back. This will not work. We must strictly prohibit it.
After his accession to the throne, Yong Zheng made a speech that today's world situation is complicated and changeable, with North Russia, South Europe and west countries, and West back to people, which may be an unstable factor affecting our political situation. "Be strict and not be leniency" Besides, there is no better way to prevent it.
By the end of the Qianlong Dynasty, China's shipbuilding and navigation technology remained at the level of Kangxi's early years. This has been delayed for at least 100 years.
In this eye, To build a large ship is equal to rebellion.
For the sake of "long-term stability" of the Empire, they adopted the policy of prohibiting the sea and moving the border and sacrificing the coastal economy at the expense of the national defense strategy.
They are equally cautious in dealing with weapons.
During the San Francisco rebellion, Kangxi appointed South Huairen to build the magic gun. After the battle, the artillery was abandoned.
Firearm expert Dai Zi invented the "Lian Zhu fan". From the point of view of principle, it is absolutely the originator of modern machine gun. Kangxi birds do not bird, but also listen to slander, in order to pass the crime of Japan, wear Dai Zi to Liaodong.
In the same period, Emperor Peter ordered that every three churches in the country devote one clock to casting cannons.
Everything can give way to weapons, including religion.
However, Kangxi lost much of his visionary hot weapon results, and then cut it off. His idea is simple: these things can not let the Han people learn.
The country is weak and the army is weak.
We all know what happened later. When the Western giant ships appeared on the coast of China, our ancestors called them "monsters". When they were tearing up the guns with China, our ancestors thought it was "witchcraft", so they used "toilet array" and "women's filth" to exorcise evil spirits.
No wonder historians say that Kangxi and his three men rule. "Obstructing people's intelligence" 。
By the end of the Qing Dynasty, we were still advocacy of weapons.
Emperor Qianlong and his father, grandfather, and the three generation of leading core are deeply studying a big problem of governing the country.
How to make people in this country better managed?
The way they think of it is Radish + Stick 。
Everyone has come to take the imperial examinations, and the scope of examination has been delineated. As long as you can take Kong Meng's right and wrong as the right and wrong, replace Kong Meng's thoughts with his own thoughts, and completely lose the ability of independent thinking, Congratulations, you are not far away from the official position.
This is radish and big stick.
Literary inquisition is the basic national policy of this period. By creating a large number of literary inquisition, people's freedom of thought and cultural innovation will be the last fatal blow.
A student wrote a poem. "A heart is not clear" Sentences. The result is on the top line. "Where is the turbid word on the top of the country?
The typical literary inquisition at that time was basically the same. Deliberately through excessive interpretation to create injustice, let you completely abandon the last expression of desire.
Literary inquisition was played to the extreme by Qianlong, with a large number, odd weaving and cruel torture. During his reign, Even mentally ill people who have no normal thinking ability are the targets of literary inquisition.
In the sixteen years of Qianlong (1751), a man named Wang Zhaoji presented a poem union praises the birthday of the Empress Dowager. Therefore, the departments at all levels examined the layers and went to the hands of the governor of Shanxi. The governor pointed out that the words behind the poetry Union had the suspicion of slander sage and arrogant rebellion.
This is terrible.
Qianlong was so excited that he ordered a swift and strict trial.
Several rounds of torture, Wang Zhaoji still confessed, this is to "congratulates the Empress Dowager longevity, but as far as my heart is concerned, I want to like the emperor likes", "I am a loyal heart, asked the emperor to use me, so I think of things written in mind." How dare you speak with one word?
It is useless to argue. Qianlong finally lowered the imperial edict and sent him to the traffic main road in the city to kill him alive.
This year, in France, the encyclopedia, edited by Diderot and Darren Bell, was published in volume one. This book includes all kinds of knowledge in natural science and social science, and introduces industrial technology and various machines and tools.
The enlightenment movement in Western Europe is in full swing. Human rights, rationality, sovereignty and other political ideas began to spread.
When the works of Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau and others were sold well in Western Europe, China's largest circulation book was called "Dayi Jue fan Lu", which demonstrated the legality of Yong Zheng's succession.
At the end of the Qianlong Dynasty, a British mission entered the mainland of China. "(Bing Ding) the whip in their hands will not hesitate to draw to their bodies, as if they were a team of horses."
The British are surprised. How can they treat their countrymen like this? Is there any human rights and legal principles?
On the contrary, the Chinese people are very calm. The order of Kangyong and Qian flourishing has been established in this way.
As Lu Xun said, some people always like to show off the "ZTE" or "flourishing age" in feudal autocratic history. In fact, for the common people, there are always two kinds of times that can be expected. The age of wanting to be a slave, and the time of stabilizing slavery for the time being.
There are two China in the era of Kang Kang and Yong Qian: one is the prosperity of the city, the other is the hardship of the people.
The British mission came to China in 1793, the fifty-eight year of Qianlong.
The mission has a large scale of up to 700 people. The document says that it is to celebrate the birthday of emperor Qian Long.
In the process of preparing gifts, the leader, Ma gal Ni, took pains. "Introducing our latest inventions, such as steam turbines, cotton spinning machines, carding machines and looms, to the Chinese, will make this curious and smart nation happy."
In addition to the achievements of these industrial revolutions, they also carried advanced weapons such as mortar, carbine, repeating pistols, and giant ship models.
They even brought a hot-air pilot. If the emperor is interested, he can sit in the hot air balloon of England.
At this time, the British industrial revolution has been going on for 30 years, and Jeanne's textile machine and Watt steam engine have pushed Britain to the top of the world.
But our emperor Qian Long asked a question, and he was baffled by Wen and Wu.
Qianlong asked. Where is the kingdom of England?
Yes, Italy and France have heard about it. What is the ghost of English?
Finally, a missionary was found to solve the problem.
This has already suggested that macalni's visit can not be smooth sailing.
Macgany invited the Qing army general, Fukang, to inspect the British Guard Corps to exercise new weapons. Fu Kang An refuses to say, "look at it too. There is nothing strange about this firearm operation.
A general of the Qing army was so proud and charming that the emperor had to show "something I had never seen before".
Qian Long said that these earth instruments, binoculars, bronze cannons and artillery were what we had.
Mr macerni came to visit with the mentality of "the strongest country in the world". He did not know that he was going to face the Heavenly Kingdom. China! China!
When Ma Erni came to see Qianlong, he was asked to kneel and kowtow on his knees. He called his gift a tribute, and he was full of shit, shit, shit.
Qianlong returned to maergni's famous saying: "The Heavenly Kingdom is rich and full, and it does not lend to foreign goods."
The hope of the British people trading with China failed, and the last door of the world left to China was also closed.
Later, he wrote in the book:
Since China's occupation of Tatar in Manchuria, China has not advanced at least in the past 150 years, or rather backwards. When we move forward in the field of art and science, they are actually becoming semi barbarians.
"When the Manchuria people fought and used arrows and arrows, when I told them that Europeans had given up their bows and arrows and used only to fight for guns, they were stunned. They thought that shooting arrows at Mercedes Benz was more heroic than standing on the ground."
In his report to the cabinet, he said, "The Chinese empire is just a dilapidated old ship. Fortunately, with several prudent captains, it did not sink in nearly 150 years. If an incompetent person comes to the helm, the discipline and safety of the ship will be over. "
"Only a few three mast warships can destroy its coastal fleet." The observation of macgany was proved in the Opium War more than 40 years later.
At that time, the Opium War had been fought for two years, and the Daoguang emperor was still asking the same question: Where is the kingdom of England?
The outcome of China's visit to China was that Qianlong was unhappy and Britain was even more unhappy.
In eighteenth Century, it is a century when the world moves from decentralization to integration.
For the great changes that are taking place in Europe and America, the owners in the Forbidden City can neither see nor see.
In 1688, Kangxi was twenty-seven years old. Britain ended the rule of the Stuart Dynasty and established a constitutional monarchy of the bourgeoisie.
In 1783, Qianlong forty-eight years. The United States declared its independence. Until more than 30 years later, the governor of Guangdong and Guangxi reported on the political system of the United States. He also said that the country was a tribal system and took turns to take the lead.
In 1789, Qianlong fifty-four years. The French Revolution broke out. Four years later, King Louis Jula was killed. Neither Qian Long nor his descendants knew anything about it.
Kang Yong Qian, the three emperor, does not need to open his eyes to see the world, because they are the world.
They are immersed in their own world. Their empire is in the "flourishing age". They are the upper kingdom of the Heavenly Kingdom. They are the first in the world.
During the 134 years of Kangyong and Qian rule, he was called "flourishing age" by habit. But how did this approach come from?
According to historical records, this was first called by the Emperor himself. Kangxi was fifty-two years old (1713). At that time, Emperor Kangxi declared in the form of "Eun Zhao" that he would carry out "flourishing age to breed people, never to add Fu". Self proclaimed "flourishing age" is very modest.
Later, the Emperor Qianlong, who was dead to his face, repeatedly declared that the country under his control was in full bloom. Later, the ministers followed up vigorously, writing various poems and praising the flourishing age.
Did you see? Kang Yong Qian flourishing, it is the emperor self brag blow out, and the subject of flattery.
The truth is, The great unification of China and the explosive growth of population at that time were the only two "grand events" of the great empire. Enough to promote the front page of Daqing daily headlines for half a month. In addition, China's economic success is only increasing in quantity but not in quality.
A longitudinal comparison of Chinese history can produce a narcissistic complex of "flourishing age". However, if we compare Kang Yongqian's flourishing age in the world history, we will understand the true meaning of "flourishing age".
In the words of historian Jonathan Spence, this flourishing age is "Gilded flourishing age" 。
At that time, China's GDP was indeed the number one in the world. However, it must be remembered that all the total population out of the population is the hooligan.
Counting GDP per capita, China has been thrown away by the United States and Britain for several blocks, and the farther it is, the farther it is. According to the calculation, in 1700, China's per capita GDP was about 1/3 of the United Kingdom and 7/10 of the United States; in 1820, it was about 1/5 of the United Kingdom and 1/4 of the United States; in 1840, it was about 1/6 of the United Kingdom and 1/5 of the United States.
Not to mention other differences in technology, military, culture and politics. Although it was a modern country at the same time, our Kangyong and Qian flourishing age was an ancient country.
The industrial revolution brought Britain into the steam age.
The emperor of China was very busy and busy. Kangxi was busy with "living for another five hundred years". Yong Zheng was busy with his whole work and Qianlong was busy with Gong Dou.
In 1796, the 86 year old Qianlong declared his Buddhist throne, and his son, Yan Yan, took over as the new emperor.
From that moment on, Qianlong became emperor.
However, Qian Long kept on saying that he still called himself "Zhi", which was still called "imperial edict" and continued his rule of the old man. His son, the new Jia Qingdi, is 38 years old and suddenly finds himself still a puppet.
Qianlong's fascination with power is at an end.
Meanwhile, Washington's two term of office is about to end, and people are holding him up for re-election.
Washington resolutely refused. He said: "If I walk on the land that is not yet solid, what I do will become a precedent for all the presidents in the future."
After leaving office, Washington returned to a long lost home and became an ordinary farmer.
In 1799, Washington and Qian Long died in the same year.
Thank you for your patience and reading. "Looking at" Let me know that you are watching.
Wang Rongsheng: why China is backward and beaten: accountability, Kang Yong Qian, social science literature press, 2017 Zhang Hongjie: "the golden age of hunger: gain and loss in the Qianlong era", Hunan people's publishing house, 2012 Wang Guicheng: "what's the best way for Kangxi and Qianlong"? "Book house" sixth issue in 2003 The editorial board of "learning times": "the glory of sunset" -- "Kangxi Qiansheng" in global change in seventeen and eighteenth Century, "Purple Pavilion" 2000 eighth issue.
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