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Tang Xuanzong's last 6 years: power, love, dignity, freedom are gone.

solovehistory @ 2019/12/06



Ge Shu Han After the defeat of the 200 thousand army and the news of the fall of Tongguan, the rebellion of an Shi rebellion was a step closer to Changan, the capital of Datang.

 

This is Tianbao fifteen loads. (756 years) In June 9th, Tang xunzong A dark day in Li Longji's life.

 

Prime Minister Yang Guo Zhong Throw the pot to Tang Xuanzong, and say that in the past ten years, you have never heard from your majesty that he is going to report rebellion on the mountain. It's not my fault. He even thought of Xuanzong after his way, and said, let's run away from Changan as soon as possible.

 

If Li Longji was young, he might have been fighting for the front line and the rebels, but he could not be old enough. The older you are, the more you cherish your life.

 

Tang Xuanzong listened to Yang Guozhong's words and quietly moved to the Forbidden City in the north of Changan city. Chen Wen Li 900 combat horses are on standby.

 

A few days later, the East was white and the morning mist was faint. favorite concubine of emperor Minghuang Prince Edward Li Heng And other imperial concubines, princes, princesses, and Prime Minister Yang Guozhong, eunuch. Gao Lishi They fled from the west gate of the Forbidden City in Changan. In the morning, the dignitaries and people in the city found themselves abandoned by the emperor, and they were all in a mess.

 

Tang Xuanzong, who founded Kaiyuan flourishing times, opened the last page of his life.


Aged Tang Xuanzong (stills).


One

 


Tang Xuanzong, a group of people, came out of the city of Changan. Xianyang hope Palace Send someone to tell the local officials to arrange accommodation. A few days later, no one came out to pick up the car. The local officer heard that the rebels had been on the run.

 

They even had problems with their meals and stopped at the same time. Yang Guozhong secretly brought Xuanzong some cakes to make him pad his stomach first, while others were hungry.

 

At this point, the emperor's brigade attracted a crowd of onlookers. Xuanzong put down their shelves and asked them, "do you have rice in your family? No matter how thick or thin it is, just bring it. " The people in Guanzhong certainly hope that the Tang Dynasty will rebel as soon as possible, and they can live a peaceful life. The royal family members and princes of the king were hungry for food. They saw the coarse grain sent by the people and grabbed their hands to eat.

 

You see, the emperor family was so miserable that they could not help crying. Tang Xuanzong also cried. It is rare for the emperor to cry together with the people like this. Guo from Jin The old man went to Xuanzong and spoke out.

It has been a day since the death of an Lushan, but his majesty did not believe it, which led to his conspiracy to succeed and his majesty to be displaced. I still remember that when the Song Dynasty was on the stage, every peace was spoken. After that, the ministers refused to be frank and flattering, and their majesty did not know anything about the Imperial Palace. I wait for the wild people to know that there will be today, but the palace is too strict to hear the sky. If this is not the case, how can I complain to my majesty?


The old man was loaded into the history book by this heartfelt saying. If Anshi rebellion had not allowed him to meet with Tang Xuanzong in Xianyang, Xuanzong would never hear these words or see these ordinary people. Under one person, they are all lucky men. They have made a great success together, but they are like two world people.

 

Tang Xuanzong listened to Guo Lao Han's words, ashamed to say: "This is unknown, regrets nothing!"


Tang Xuanzong's portrait. 



Two

 


Tang Xuanzong said goodbye to his folks and went west all the way to Xingping county. Ma Yi Yi

 

Here he lost Yang Yuhuan.

 

Tang Xuanzong's party was exhausted, and the officers and men of the army were anxious. These forbidden troops were all from Changan, leaving their families and their families at home, and they were reluctant to run to the Shu area with the emperor. Moreover, in their view, aren't they the same as Yang Guozhong? Is Tongguan's failure to urge Yang Guozhong to blindly fight?

 

The angry soldiers were anxious to kill Yang Guozhong, and the scene was out of control.

 

Chen Xuanli, the leader of the banned army, has been a veteran guard for many years. He knows that if he can not appease the emotions of the officers and men, it will cause a mutiny. However, killing such a prime minister must be supported by a high weight figure. In addition to Xuanzong, Yang Guozhong's personal voice is the most common right.

 

Chen Xuanli thought about it. No, there was another man, Prince Li Heng.


Prince Li Heng (stills). 


When the outbreak of an Shi rebellion broke out, Li Heng, 45, had been a prince for nearly twenty years.

 

For twenty years, Li Heng lived in fear all the year round. At that time, he was chosen as the prince because of his predecessor. Li Ying Wu Hui Fei was framed, and two other brothers were killed by Xuanzong. The throne of Li Heng is not at all stable. Prime Minister Li Linfu and Yang Guozhong have suppressed them everywhere. Li Shizhi, Wei Jian, Wang Zhongsi and other Wen Chen's generals will be cut down one after another, and their father's suspicions should be put up.

 

The prince of Tang Dynasty is a high-risk job.

 

Li Heng hated Yang Guozhong's hate and hated Li Linfu, who had already died. But Li Longji, who had a close eye on each other and checks and balances among the various forces, was also very delicate.

 

Chen Xuanli found Li Heng and made a plan to kill Yang Guozhong. Li Heng's attitude is very cautious. Prince Edward pending 。 At this juncture, no objection is approval.

 

Chen Xuanli summoned the officers and soldiers to charge Yang Guozhong with the charge of "Treason" and took him to death. According to the story of an Lu Shan, written by Yao Runeng of the Tang Dynasty, the knight was led by him. Zhang Xiao Jing He first launched his loyalty to the country.


Yang Guozhong's son and Princess Yang's elder sister, South Korea's wife, were killed in the army. Those who lost control of their emotions even dismounted Yang Guozhong, fired his head with a gun, and hung it outside the station.

 

As soon as Tang Xuanzong heard the urgency of the situation, he hurried out of the post gate with a walking stick to comfort the officers and soldiers, and advised them to return to their respective teams. The officers and men remained motionless and murderous.

 

Xuanzong panicked and asked Gao Lishi to ask the officers and men what else they wanted. The officers and men said in chorus: "The thief is still here."

 

Chen Xuanli explained to Xuanzong for them: "The rebellion of the state is unacceptable to the imperial concubine, and your majesty is willing to cut off the right law." Yang Guozhong was reused because of her popularity. The officers and men must cut her roots out.

 

Xuanzong was stunned and slowly said, "I must be there."

 

Minister Wei Ying Seeing Tang Xuanzong hesitating, coming up with a few heads and a blood stream, he admonish, "now that we can't make a lot of anger, we are in danger of cutting down in danger."

 

Tang Xuanzong still can not bear to say, "the imperial concubine often lives in the deep palace, and Anchi Kunitada is against it?"

 

At this time, Gao Li, who served Xuanzong for many years, also spoke. The princess is not guilty, but the soldiers have killed Guo Zhong, and the imperial concubine is at his majesty. May your majesty think about it, but your majesty will be safe! " Gao Li Shi is worthy of being an old cadre in the palace. If you don't kill the imperial concubines, you may not even miss Xuanzong.

 

Tang Xuanzong loves Yang Kuei Fei, but he loves his life and throne more. At this moment, he could not even protect his beloved woman.

 

After saying goodbye to Yang Kuei Fei, Xuanzong painfully killed her, and ordered her to die in front of the Buddha Hall with white silk. As Bai Juyi wrote "everlasting regret":

The six army did not lose anything.

The flower garden has no place to collect.

The king could not hide his face and return to the blood and tears.


Yang Kuei Fei is not the beauty of evil. This extraordinary beauty symbolizes the prosperous era. She embellished the whole Tang Empire with natural beauty. Unfortunately, the tragedy is to break the good things to others.

 


Three

 


After a brief hesitation, Tang Xuanzong chose to take refuge in Sichuan.

 

The local people stopped the emperor's car and said: "Imperial palace, your majesty home; mausoleum, your Majesty's tomb. Now, why do we want it? "

 

Tang Xuanzong listened to the words of his folks, but for a long time, he could still pull up his head and go slowly towards the direction of Shu Road. The shadow of the younger generation was no longer caught.

 

After Emperor Xuanzong left, Prince Li Heng was surrounded by the common people. They shouted, "we are willing to follow the Royal Highness east to break the thief and take Changan. If your highness wants to go to Shu, who can the Central Plains people serve?

 

In the face of the retention of the people, Li Hengqi declined at the beginning, saying that his father was about to set foot on a long journey, and that his son should serve him around the clock, so as to make filial piety. On the other hand, when he weep, he will catch up with Xuanzong.

 

At this time, Li Heng's son Wang Ping Wang. Li Wei Later renamed Li Yu, that is, the Tang Dynasty. Eunuch Li Fu Guo The prince and his horse were pulled together and persuaded that the country had fallen apart. If we did not conform to the popular feelings and organized the rebellion, there would be hope for revival. When we go to Shu, if the thief troops burn the plank road, the court can only be trapped in the Shu area. When that happens, the Central Plains will be handed over to the people. Your highness is better off to deploy to the northwest, and the rest of us will work together to fight against the thief, to recover two Beijing and cut down the four seas.

 

Li Heng listened, and no longer declined. In this case, I stayed with the providence of the people.

 

After nearly twenty years, Prince Li Heng finally broke away from his father's shadow and went on separate ways. From the silence of Ma Yi Yi, the retention of the ordinary people, and the persuasion of the people around them, these incidental events are pieced together.

 

Tang Xuanzong was not far from the left, waiting for the right, and so on. When the horse was reported, the prince was left behind. Xuanzong has no choice but to continue on the road.


Tang Tang Li Sixun (a Li Zhaodao). 


After a month's long journey, Xuanzong finally arrived in Jiange, patting the small heart that plop, and no longer worried about the pursuit of troops. Here, he published a book, telling the world to deploy the strategy of counter insurgency.

 

This book is very important. In the previous month, the emperor did not know the whereabouts of Xuanzong.

 

Tang Xuanzong first blamed himself: "Yi Zhen Bo de can not keep his position. When we are in trouble, we must be punished by sin. This is equivalent to the crime of Zhao, saying that there will be today's disaster, is my responsibility.

 

After that, the book also announced: "Take Prince Tai Heng as commander in chief of the world, lead the Shuo, Hedong, Hebei, Pinglu, and take Changan and Luoyang." Yong king Li Lin, Sheng Wang Li Qi, Feng Wang Li Gong and other imperial princes also took the place to make the most of their places. Such deployment, in fact, is to control itself in moderation, to avoid power and to prevent local generals from stealing royal power.

 

But it's too late. Just three days before Emperor Xuanzong's imperial edict, Prince Li Heng had been supported by the Shuo army. Lingwu (in today's Ningxia) Unauthorized accession to the throne Emperor Su Zong 。 He also respected Xuanzong as the emperor of heaven.

 

This is embarrassing. When father wants his son to be the marshal of the world, his son wants to make his father king too. In the Tang Dynasty, two emperors appeared at the same time.

 

It can be imagined that Li Heng's self assertion is no doubt adding insult to injury to Tang Xuanzong.

 

From the previous book, we can see that Xuanzong does not want to give up the throne. From his youth, he was full of desire for power and his aunt. Princess Taiping After being handicap, he took the lead in starting a coup and regain his imperial power. After more than 40 years, he was always arrogant and conceited. For him, to lay down the noble imperial power is to lay down the last trace of dignity.

 

Xuanzong was relieved when he learned that Li Heng Ling Wu was the foundation of the throne. In Chengdu, Tang Xuanzong promulgated The prince of heaven is emperor's imperial edict. Li Heng was recognized as emperor, and all military affairs were heard by him. He declared his career of rule ended.

 

This is a wise decision. One of the important reasons for the Tang Dynasty's suppression of the rebellion and the maintenance of the state was that the power was concentrated in the hands of the emperor and avoided the struggle within the ruling bloc.

 

Xuanzong and Shu Zong have no worries to go back to the future. This is the last great contribution Tang Xuanzong made in his position.

 


Four

 


In Shu, Tang Xuanzong fell into deep repentance and yearning.

 

He recalls that when he entered the road through the rill Valley, the drizzle was drizzling. Rain Lin bell A piece of music was played by Zhang Yehu, a musician, to express his grief for Yang. Later, when he returned to Changan, he saw the jade chime played by Yang Kuei Fei, who was looking for things, and had to hide it.

 

He recalled the prime minister who helped him to create a flourishing age. Yao Chung He said: "If Yao Chong is in, the thief will not be destroyed." This is similar to Cao Cao's cry in the romance of the Three Kingdoms. If he is still there, I will not fall into such a way.

 

He recalled the prime minister who monopolizing power. Li Lin Fu Regretted unceasingly, appraise him: "is jealous and able to be jealous, also invincible." But when others ask him, "what is the use of your majesty?" Xuanzong kept silent.

 

He recalls Kaiyuan's last sage. Zhang Jiuling 。 Tang Xuanzong did not want to kill him when he broke military orders. Zhang Jiuling concluded that Anlushan must play the role of "not to avoid death" and Xuanzong does not listen. In the second years when he was in his hometown, he sent a special memorial to Zhang Jiuling, who had already died in Qujiang.

 

After two years of self reflection, the best virtue is two years. (757 years) Tang Xuanzong finally received the encouraging news: Tang army recovered Changan!

 

At this point, a question is placed in front of Xuanzong, is it necessary to return to Changan to reunite with his son?

 

Tang Zong Zong asked his father to return to Beijing, and his tone was sincere. He said, Dad, don't be the emperor. When you return to Changan to become emperor, I will go back to the eastern palace to become Prince Edward. Xuanzong did not dare to steal pleasure. Before his son ran to Lingwu, he made a claim to the emperor without authorization. Now that Changan has recovered, he must return the throne.

 

Tang Xuanzong immediately wrote a letter to Li Heng, and you cut Sichuan to me. I will not go home, and I will be here for my old age.

 

Before Tang emperor Su Zong asked him to return to the throne, he was a heavy official. Li Mei It was concluded that Xuanzong could not return to the East, but also demanded that the emperor return the watch, but the messenger ran too fast and failed to catch up.

 

After answering Xuanzong's reply, Tang Su Zong had to ask Li Mi what remedy he had. Li Mi said, you asked me to write a congratulation list.

 

Li mi also wrote a congratulation list, which was written in the name of ministers in 27 words.

From the horse, please stay, Lingwu persuade, and succeed today.


In a few words, there are three layers of meaning: Li Heng called the emperor the common people, and the ministers persuaded him to do so. He did not give up the face of Xuanzong, which eased the contradiction between the father and son. Secondly, he sent troops to take back the Changan, and "this is a success". The ministers felt that he was qualified to be the emperor.

 

Tang Xuanzong received second congratulations, and his mood was quite different. He decided to leave Chengdu and return to Changan. After knowing the emperor, Li Mi said to the old fellow, "this is the credit of the Qing."

 

Father and son have been hiding a lot of mind in this two to one journey. Can Xuanzong return to Changan and have a safe life? History tells us that the days of emperors who are forced to give up their imperial power will never be better.


 


Five

 


Xuanzong and his little court have just arrived in Fufeng. (now Baoji, Shaanxi) And the emperor of the Soviet Union gave them a chance to send 3000 soldiers to the enemy. How many people are there beside Xuanzong? But only 600.

 

The 3000 elite soldiers of emperor Su Zong arrived and they disarmed the 600 people of Xuanzong and ordered them to dissolve in situ. It means that the brothers have worked hard, and the work of sending the emperor to home is handed over to us.

 

To the palace of hope in Xianyang, this is the first stop for Xuanzong to escape from Changan after that year.

 

He arranged a grand welcoming ceremony for his father, playing a good play for the people of the world. He asked Xuanzong to go to the South Building of Wang Xian palace. He took off his yellow robe and changed into the purple robe of the official. He trotted all the way downstairs to the Xuanzong on the upper floor.

 

Xuanzong saw that when his son came, he hurried down the stairs. Then, Emperor Su Zong knelt down, holding the feet of Xuanzong and weeping bitterly. This is the old custom of Hu people, expressing his respect for his father.

 

At this time, Xuanzong should personally wear a yellow robe for his son. Xuanzong said: "The number of days, the hearts of all belong to you, so that I have to maintain the remaining teeth, you also have the same." Emperor Su Zong made a dilemma. He put on a yellow robe and shouted the mountain to the sky.

 

Two years later, father and son finally met again.

 

Tang Su Zong has done enough tricks. After that, he put up a feast in the main hall and brought up the imperial meal. On the way back to Changan, he took the lead for Xuanzong and led the way.

 

Tang Xuanzong looked at the scene and said something intriguing. "I have been fifty years of heaven, not expensive; this is the father of heaven, but your ears!" Some people say Xuanzong does not have a heart and soul, so it is hard to repent and feel so complacent. But this sentence also seems to be understood that Xuanzong intends to show good advice to Su Zong.

 

When the old man said such a contrary thing, it could be seen that he was down in his old age.


Emperor Tang Zong Zong greeted Tang Xuanzong and Chao. 


 

Six

 


After returning to Changan, Tang Xuanzong lived in. Xingqing Palace Tang Zong lived in the Tang Dynasty Daming Palace Father and son often visit each other and sometimes meet in the city. Xuanzong's life is good and his status is lofty. He seems to enjoy the happiness of his family. In fact, he is in danger.

 

The palace of Xingqing was transformed from the former residence of Xuanzong to the former king's house. Changqing building It's next to the main road. Tang Xuanzong walked up to the Changqing building in a hurry, and the street view of the city was vividly visible. Xuanzong listened to his heart in a happy way. He waved his hand and even set a banquet.

 

Those who walk in Xingqing palace usually include Chen Xuanli and Gao Lishi, besides princess, waitresses, maids and pear children. Xuanzong also gave a banquet in honor of general Guo Yingyi, Wang Xi and others. Jiannan road officials have spent the past two years with Xuanzong, and each time they play in Beijing, they will visit Xuanzong at the Xingqing palace.

 

Tang Xuanzong has been dealing with outsiders all day, and has actually threatened the emperor. You are retired, and you are in close contact with the officials. What do you want to do?


Changan lantern first (stills). 

 

In the eyes of emperor Su, he did not feel confident in his lips. At this time, Li Fuguo, the eunuch, spoke to the emperor of the sun. The emperor became an alien, and Chen Xuanli and Gao Lishi even plotting against him day and night.

 

The implication is to guard against Tang Xuanzong's restoration.

 

Li Fuguo and Tang Xuanzong had long holidays. He was born in a stable horse and had a very ugly appearance. He was a member of Gao Lishi, who could not be reused and sent to the womb. Later, he supported Li Heng in his deeds and became a new master's confidant. He wanted to start clearing up his own party.

 

Li Fuguo was a great evil in the Tang Dynasty. Such a small villain can help the emperor do dirty work.

 

Li Fuguo suggested to Su Zhong that the palace of Xingqing was built in the marketplace. The palace walls were so low that they were not suitable for the residence of the emperor. Tai Chi Palace Living there, deep palace courtyard, strict guard, but also to eliminate the small people bewitched, not the best of both worlds.

 

The situation between Taiji palace and Xingqing palace is very different. Tai Chi palace is located in the inner part of the great hall. In the north, it is a Forbidden Garden. In the south, it is an office in the imperial court. In the East, it is the eastern palace of the prince. In the west, it is the palace of the palace where the maid lives. It is almost isolated from the world.

 

What's the reaction of Tang Su Zong? History books say, Do not listen at all That is hesitation.

 

Li Fuguo was in the palace for many years, knowing that his boss did not know that he did not agree. He tried to test the real intention of emperor Su, and ordered 290 horses from the palace of Xingqing.

 

Horses are strategic materials and necessary for war. Of course, they can not be assured of Xuanzong. There were 300 horses in the Xingqing palace, and there were 10 left at once. Tang Xuanzong looked at the empty stables and said helplessly to Gao Lishi: "my son is puzzled by the state, and can not be filial piety at the end."

 

Tang Zong Zong has no indication of the overstepping of powers by Li Fu Guo, and is basically acquiescence. Li Fuguo looked more daring. With an emperor backing up, the matter will be easy to handle.

 

The first year of the Shang Dynasty (760 years) Li Fuguo sent a message to the Xingqing palace, saying that emperor Zong asked Xuanzong to visit Taiji palace. Xuanzong did not dare to refuse. When Li went to Rui Wu gate, he suddenly appeared 500 riders with knives and stopped the way.

 

Xuanzong startled, Li Fuguo said arrogantly. "The emperor thinks the Xingqing palace is low-lying and narrow, so please move to the palace of Taiji." After the change of horses, Xuanzong had a psychological shadow on the mutiny, and almost fell from the horse.

 

The emperor was so bullied, and at a critical juncture, Gao Lishi, one side, hurried forward to support Xuanzong and retorted, "in the fifty year of the Taiping emperor, Li Fu Guo was so rude." After that, he issued the imperial order in the name of the emperor, and expressed his condolences to the 500 cavalry.

 

All the officers and men thought that the overlord was still in danger and could not be easily offended. Gao Lishi knew that things could not be redeemed. At the moment he could only protect Xuanzong, so he ordered Li Fuguo to join him in taking care of the emperor. Although Li Fuguo was reluctant, he did not dare to be too presumptuous. I have to talk to my old boss. Pull up the reins and escort Xuanzong into Taiji palace.

 

After Li Fuguo left the army, Xuanzong said with gratitude to Gao Lishi: "if it were not for the general, I would be a ghost under the knife."

 

From then on, Tang Xuanzong was put under house arrest to Taiji palace, and was completely out of touch with the outside world. Chen Xuanli, the former leader of the banned army, was ordered to retire. (now Huaihua, Hunan)

 

In the Taiji palace, only one hundred imperial maids arranged by Emperor Su were responsible for sweeping, and dozens of old and weak soldiers were in charge of escorting.

 

Always speaking for justice. learned scholar On behalf of a hundred officials, he greeted the living conditions of Xuanzong and was immediately removed from the post of minister of the Ministry of justice.

 

In the later years, the lonely Xuanzong had no power, no love, no dignity, or even freedom, leaving only the weak body, such as the candle in front of the wind and the twilight of Sang Yu.

 


Seven

 


The Dragon Boat Festival arrived, Tang emperor Zong and his children and grandchildren gathered together, the happy palace in the Daming Palace, only missing the old Xuanzong. At this time, the emperor was not in good health. He had not visited his father in Taiji palace for a long time.


Emperor Su held a young princess. He was afraid of laughing. He had to play with his children, and said to the famous scholar of Feng Zhao, "I deeply love this woman. Don't blame it."

 

The man took the words of emperor Su, saying, "the emperor wants to see your majesty, just like your majesty loves the princess."

 

When he listened and thought, he could not say a word for a long time.


The portrait of emperor Su Zong. 


The first year of Baoying (762 years) After being put under house arrest in Taiji palace in one year and ten months, Tang Xuanzong, 78, died of hate. For a long time before his death, he indulged in the valley of Taoism, and did not eat five grains, and insisted on hunger strike.

 

The emperor of the Tang Dynasty, who had left Changan six years ago, failed to recover. After losing power, he seemed to have lost the color of life and moved towards the end of life in solitude.

 

13 days after Tang Xuanzong's death, Tang Su Zong also fell ill and soon came to the end.

 

Tang Xuanzong's grandson in the Tang Dynasty, following his grandfather's wishes, buried him in the Tai Ling. In the same year, Tang Xuanzong and the Emperor Wen Chen had already died away with the wind. Finally, only one person was buried.

 

In the year of Xuanzong's death, Gao Li Shi, who was exiled in Wu state, was returned by Amnesty. He went halfway to hear that Xuanzong was dead, facing the north, crying loudly, vomiting blood and dying.

 

In the second year, the rebellion of an Shi was settled, and the prosperous Tang Dynasty was gone forever.



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Reference:
[Tang] Zheng Zai: "Ming Huang miscellanse", Zhonghua Book Company, 1994 edition.
[later Jin] Liu: "Old Tang Shu", Zhonghua Book Company, 1975 edition.
[song] Ou Yangxiu and Song Qi: New Tang book, Zhonghua Book Company, 1975 edition.
[song] Sima Guang: "Zhi Zhi Tong Jian", Zhonghua Book Company, 2009 edition.
(British) Cui Ruide: the history of Chinese Sui and Tang Dynasties in Cambridge, China Social Sciences Press, 1990 edition.
Zhao Jianmin: the era of Emperor Tang Xuanzong, Shanghai people's publishing house, 2007 Edition




Chinese:唐玄宗的最后6年:权力、爱情、尊严、自由都没有了