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Yu Yunguo read "Sun Yingshi's career in learning official career"

shanghaishuping @ 2019/10/19


Sun Yingshi's career as an official official:

The adherents of Taoism responded to the political changes in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty

National Taiwan University Publishing Center

Published in February 2018

376 pages, NT $400.

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Wen Jie Yu Yun Guo


According to Mr. Huang Kuan Chung himself, he chose the Southern Song Dynasty as a career of learning history, besides "sending it to the historical world", and more importantly, to date, the Southern Song Dynasty is "a historical map yet to be complements". (policy and Countermeasure: 241 pages of the exploration of political history in Song Dynasty, hereinafter referred to as "exploration", United Publishing House, 2012) There is still much room for development. Sun Yingshi's academic career: the response of Taoist followers to political changes in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty (hereinafter referred to as "Sun Yingshi", citations are only page numbers) As shown in his subtitle, it is a new attempt to change the jigsaw puzzle in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty.

In addition to the introduction and the epilogue, the book is divided into three parts. The first part is composed of four chapters: "Founding village", "learning hard and difficult to concurrently", "banning the fish in the pond" and "Qing Shi Fang Fang". The author claims to be "the first axis". In the longitudinal way of discussion, the family background and the village network are spread out one after another, in order to learn the awkward advance and retreat of the official career and expand the connections of the people, under the dramatic changes of the political situation, to cope with the reorganization of the connections, and to rehabilitate and praise in the later years. The second part is made up of the two chapters of Shi Cheng Zai Yi and "Shi Shi Chang". The author claims to be the second axis. The former chapter sorts out the complex relationship between Sun Ying Shi and his friends in the other schools. If we extract the second spindles, the whole book is only a biographical biography of flat lines. Only by means of this horizontal layout can we provide the panoramic and detailed details of the political culture in the mid Song Dynasty. The third part is the two appendix. It clarifies the similarities and differences between the two versions of the master's collection of candlestick, and compiling the chronology of Sun Yingshi's life and book, so as to lay a solid foundation for the study of philology.

After reading "Sun Yingshi", I think of Jonathan Spence's death of Wang who read a few years ago. The book is a clever collection of local chronicles, archives, and other historical materials of "Liao Zhai" story and sufficient funds. It reproduces the fate of Wang's fate that is unknown, and weaves the survival of the low end people in the remote areas of Kangxi's flourishing age. Although Sun Yingshi did not encounter the death of Wang, he was lucky in material acquisition, but similar in the way he painted large historical figures.


One


In the study of the history of the Southern Song Dynasty, the author has learned from his academic interest: "from the edge of the characters and local affairs, from the side to understand the political issues, and then discuss social issues". (Explorations 241 pages) 。 If his local force in the Southern Song Dynasty and the family and society in the Song Dynasty took a local perspective, Sun Ying's time was cut from marginal characters. No matter what kind of entry, the author's research direction is "learning to link historical phenomena with political issues, and the content of research is therefore strong political observation", that is, based on the history of politics. But he believes that the study of political history should break through the traditional models such as the system of rules and regulations and political events, and "explore new and inspiring issues of political history". (Explorations 1, 11, 14) His other entrance is just an attempt to open up new issues.

Sun Ying Shi

With the help of marginal cases, Sun Yingshi has grasped the political problems in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty from the side of the academic circles, and discussed the wider social topics through the spectroscope of history. In this academic biography, the author "pays special attention to the adaptation, way out and final fate of individuals and groups when the political and social environment changes." (Explorations 10 pages) In the field of vision projection, it is more extensive.

In the use of historical materials, the author, starting from the collected works, is expected to know more rich and varied historical images with different ways of exploring the past. (Explorations 241 pages) 。 With the rise of the scholars and the development of printing, in the Song Dynasty, even the bureaucrats in the middle and lower strata of the official history did not have the chance to enter literary collections, notes or local records. Fortunately, Sun Yingshi, who had been handed down from a literary collection, was by no means an isolated case. This provided historical data for studying bureaucrats in the bottom of the border. In the study of characters and family, the author affirms that the biographical materials such as epitaphs and monuments are still necessary, and consciously circumvent their limitations and deviations.

The writer is familiar with the whole world in the Southern Song Dynasty anthology, so in addition to the "Wen Hu Yuan Ji" pass Wen Yuan Ge Ben, he noticed the scholarly value of the Jingyuan Xuan. The summary of the catalogue of the four libraries has a commentary on "candle Lake collection" and Sun Ying Shi: "when Shi Miyuan is in the right time, he concentrates on and sets out distant books. It is so far away from the state that it is aloof from nature, without any guise. In order to commend sun Shi and denounce Shi Shi, Si Ku Guan Chen completely misread the book of sun Shi's Shi Shi, and even ignored the fact that sun's death was before and after Shi's dictatorship. However, the author did not stop at correcting the historical mistakes of the minister, but he was acutely aware of the fact that this misreading essentially contained some prejudice against the middle history of the Southern Song Dynasty. This kind of prejudice has existed for a long time and continues to this day. It not only includes the classification of the enemy and the enemy under the sensitive political situation, but also the absolute evaluation of historical figures, and the simplification of complex interpersonal relationships. The consciousness of long storage and the in-depth interpretation of candlestick collection have brought new ideas and new problems to his research in the collision: the marginal changes in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty are represented by the marginal figures. It can be seen that the author of the book "Sun Yingshi" as a topic and written as a monograph, is by no means an exquisite trick, but not a whim. Instead, it is based on the comprehensive and meticulous reading of the anthology and is guided by question consciousness.

The author also has his own way of thinking in the application of anthology materials. In view of the marked increase in the proportion of letters in the Southern Song Dynasty, he emphasized the special value of correspondence to the study of characters: "these letters are valuable historical materials, no matter mastering the current situation of the Southern Song Dynasty, or even understanding the personal experience and coping styles of Taoist followers". (192 pages) 。 These highly confidential letters help researchers to better grasp the interpersonal relationship and specific ideas of scholars at that time, and have a more comprehensive understanding of individuals and groups. (271 pages) 。 The information of Sun Ying Shi's biographies is limited, and his anthology forms the basic historical data. The author takes the most time-consuming and difficult way, repeating the books and articles in Candlestick collection, and editing each year, first clarifying the deeds of each stage and his hometown, colleagues, teachers and friends as the research basis. (282 pages) 。 Using letters and information to study specific topics or specific periods of the characters, the academic circles, despite their whipping efforts, take the letter as a basic historical material, "linking with the life history of their own, and conducting a long-term and multi angle investigation". (272 pages) The author does not have the feeling: first, the real feelings conveyed by letters are difficult to see in general history books or personal biographies. Two, "these faces show the temperature between people, that is, the fundamental human nature, not the data and quantity obtained from the database." (274 pages) 。 Starting from the corpus, fully excavating the value of the letter, this path and method is undoubtedly enlightening.


Two


Biographical writing belongs to the category of case studies. Whether the case is typical or not determines the depth and breadth of the research. In retrospect of traditional Chinese and western historiography, the great masters of many fields are chosen for the purpose of image recognition, which is determined by the importance of celebrities, great influence and abundant data. Although contemporary biography still affirms the rationality and necessity of celebrity biographies, but abandoning the heroic view of history and consciously expanding the scope of the spread of the subject to the lower level, all the ordinary characters who can reflect the historical spectrum from one side are enough to constitute biographical research. However, whether celebrities or ordinary people, the preconditions for choosing a master are common: first, they have important research value; two, they are enough to form new research perspectives; three, they have the basic biographical materials.

During the social changes in the Tang and Song Dynasties, the family system also entered the reconstructing stage, and the small and medium-sized family became the main body of the new family. Author in Song Dynasty's family and society. (National Library Press, 2009) He chose not to take the family of Gao men, but took the simi Ming and the middle-sized scholar family in Jiangxi as a case, focusing on the general phenomenon of such families representing the Song Dynasty. He chose Sun Yingshi as the leader this time and showed his research vision to a more common cold minority. The sun family began to enter the Confucian school from the beginning of the three generation of efforts. The small family had neither rich economic backing nor rich resources. Its children could only rely on the support of the family, and worked hard, and finally became the pioneer of the whole family to become officials. The Song Dynasty historians in the two Song Dynasties highly appraised the movement of all the industrial and commercial sectors. However, the transformation of the Sun Yingshi family shows how hard it is for the younger generation to move upward to the gentry family. In fact, after the entry of the leader into the official family, he has always been worried about his livelihood, and it also confirms that even in a luckily transformation, the intellectuals in the rising class are still seriously insecure. When it comes to the mobility of the social class, there are peasants, artisans and merchants rising to the upper class movement of scholars. There are also horizontal movements among peasants, artisans and merchants, and the downward movement of the intellectuals into the ranks of farmers, artisans and merchants. However, the proportion of different types of flows is still not fully concerned by the academic circles. In the absence of quantitative demonstration of social mobility, academics may affirm the class mobility of the Song Dynasty, but it should be prudent. In this regard, Sun Ying Shi and the small family represented by Nong Shing is perhaps more typical in the imperial examination society and family transformation.

The imperial examination system contributed to the rise of scholar bureaucrats. The monarchical totalitarian regime in Song Dynasty was ruled by bureaucrats and bureaucrats. Although Sun Yingshi is at the end of the bureaucracy, he also holds the mission of the times to the literati and officialdom. Although this sense of mission is often awkward with its marginal status. He had long been floating in the ranks of the candidates, and he was forced to face the harsh political situation of the Qing Dynasty. When he was only a Changshu magistrate, he was impeachment until he died. However, even when he was drowned, he was still concerned about the people's livelihood and devoted himself to his work. Academic research tends to focus on Fan Zhong Yan's senior officials, but Sun Ying Shi's middle and low level officials constitute the largest base of bureaucrat bureaucrats. For the bureaucratic group and bureaucracy in Song Dynasty, it reflects the reality of history more clearly, and undoubtedly has the unique value of case study.

In the field of academic thought, Neo Confucianism was finally established and Gestalt in the Song Dynasty. In the Southern Song Dynasty, during the course of the formation of Taoism, great scholars such as Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan have always been attracted much attention. However, Taoism is an epochal trend of thought. Although Sun Yingshi had no original contribution to Taoism, he was not only a lifelong adherence to Taoist thought, but also established a Taoist temple of the Taoist temple and wrote articles on his own. The author clearly studied Sun Yingshi as a typical case of grassroots followers in the process of establishing Daoism.

Zhu Xi

On the basis of this, Sun Ying Shi, although he did not pass the official history, disappeared everywhere, but formed a multidimensional intersection of family structure transformation, bureaucratic system operation, scholars' group consciousness and Taoism main tide convergence. It has shown a unique new perspective for understanding politics, society and academia in the middle of the Southern Song Dynasty.

The book is a subversive example of a typical person who is a typical figure in the fine sketch. The purpose is to highlight the role of small people in the great history, and to make this political panorama in the mid Song Dynasty more realistic, detailed and rich. This case not only supplements and corrections the existing views of the academic circles, but also highlights the research of officials at the lower and middle levels, which is "important for understanding the overall development of academics and politics". (190 pages) 。 Since the beginning of the new century, although historians of the Song Dynasty at home and abroad have turned their vision to the fringe of the lower social strata, Sun Yingshi has opened up the atmosphere to convey the great sense of time and space and the temperature of the characters.


Three


There are three sub topics in the first axis of the book, namely, the sun family and its Yuyao interpersonal network, "the development of social support and the expansion of interpersonal relationships" and "the reconstruction of social networks under the political turmoil". The subtitle, although no "interpersonal" or "interpersonal network" is written, is still focused on the interpersonal relationship between Shi Miyuan and Qiu Qiu. As for the second main axis two chapter, Shi Zhuan Yi focuses on "Lu Xue men's changes in teachers and schools of Taoism", which is still the interpersonal network between the Taoist and Taoist groups. "Strain of the world" explores the experience and response of Sun Yingshi's friends before and after the Qing Dynasty's ban, and selects representative friends from the host's interpersonal network to show their different coping strategies and fate in the change of political situation. From this we can see that the interpersonal network and its reconstruction of different groups in different periods are the focus of the whole book.

Sociology has the concept of "social bond", which is similar to the popular "interpersonal network" nowadays. From a sociological perspective, interpersonal networks can be divided into different groups and hierarchies. Hierarchies are often postponed one by one, for example, from family networks to regional networks; groups may intersect each other, such as academic networks, educational networks and bureaucratic networks.

Sun Yingshi lived in the early days of the world, and his family was very cold. The interpersonal network of family relations was relatively simple. However, since the peasants entered Confucianism, the educational network has gradually opened up their interpersonal networks. Between sun and his family, Hu Shi and Hu's wife and Mohs, the relationship between teachers and students has formed an affinity system to promote the rise of their family. In fact, he was educated in his hometown before and during his official career. He also signed a teacher-student relationship with Shi Mi Yuan. He also extended the educational network. He not only expanded from the hometown of Yuyao to Ming Zhou on the regional network, but also accumulated contacts for officialdom network. In the education network of Song Dynasty, there were both private school systems such as village school, lecture hall and other private schools which had been taught and taught, as well as the official system of various levels, such as state county school, Tai Xue and so on. Sun Yingshi, many of his fellow students, and even teachers (such as Lv Zuqian, Lu Jiuyuan and Zhang Shi) have studied or lecturing at Tai Xue to form a close educational network, which overlapped or tied up with his academic network and officialdom network. The author first put his family transformation in the perspective of interpersonal network, and thought that education is the first network of Sun Ying Shi's "family relationship". (39 pages) Then, the scanning of educational network is gradually extended and promoted. It emphasizes that Tai Xue is a diversified and open talent gathering place, playing a role of intellectual and interpersonal hub for scholars of Sun Ying Shi style. (185 pages) 。 This book is not only convincing, but also enlightening.

With the help of the academic network, Sun Yingshi's research on the formation process of Taoism in the Southern Song Dynasty is unique. The author reveals that the founder was originally a Lu Xue man, who subsequently learned from Lv Zuqian, who also followed Zhang Zhang and formed an academic interaction with Zhu Xi. Sun Yat Hsien is no longer a special case. It is not only a special case of Sun Ying Shi, but also an overview of his related land learning network. Not only the general Lu men friends, but also the four Mr. Yang Jian and Shen Huan, who are well aware of Lu Xue, and Zhu Xi, Zhang Shi, Lu Zu Qian and Xue Jixuan are all interacting with each other. Moreover, Lv Zujian, a member of the Jinhua school, came from Xiang an Shi, a school of Huxiang school. He learned from Zhou Nan and Wang Nan of the Yongjia school and had similar experiences in academic networks.

Taking Sun Yingshi as the center, the author searched the academic network of the master in all directions, not only "jumping away from the ideological history perspective centered on Confucianism". (121 pages) It also revealed the hologram of Taoism in the Southern Song Dynasty in the final shaping period (Song Xiaozong Chun Xi Dynasty to Song Ningzong Kai Xi Dynasty). On the one hand, on the one hand, the great scholars of Kai Zong faction, despite their divergent views and opposing sides, are characterized by mutual exchanges and debates, competing and embracing each other, "to revise or enrich their arguments"; on the other hand, the general Taoist followers also have "plenty of opportunities to ask for advice from different Confucian scholars", "showing that scholars have the power to actively explore knowledge". (181 pages) 。 In view of the academic system of Sun Ying Shi, the author focused on the test of Lu's disciple Zai Yi he's development of Lu Xue, and concluded that Lu Xue was finally formed in response to the challenge from Lv Zuqian and utilitarian school and Zhu Xi theory in two phases. The author points out that the Taoist school is in such concurrence, challenge, response and self-reliance, which gradually shifted from the early stage of development to the opposite, the gateway is strict, and intensified. (184 pages) 。 The panorama of Taoism and the establishment of the Daoist gateway analyzed by Sun Yingshi is clearer, more profound and profound than that of academic circles.

The author has introduced officialdom network into bureaucratic system research, breaking through the limitation of academia's attention to the system level and its operation procedures so far. In the Song Dynasty bureaucratic group, although there was no hope in the middle Tang Dynasty, the Yin and Ke, civil servants and military officials, the candidates and the capital officials were still very strict. With the increase of the number of scholars, the number of middle and low ranking bureaucrats is increasing. Whether or not it is possible to step in the sequence of candidates from the candidates' sequence in order to make their official career continue to rise. During the thirty-one years since his death, Sun Yingshi has spent nearly twenty years waiting for real or raising the ancestral home of the ancestral temple. Sometimes even family plans are in trouble. As a lower class official born of cold, the leader of the school is in the dilemma of learning the difficulty of the official league. In the absence of the right place, the transfer of the exercise to the left and right sides of the people, and the painstaking efforts of the official network, the helpless and hardship of such a lower level official is indeed seldom noticed by the historians of Song Dynasty. In the past, when evaluating the imperial examination system and official system in the Song Dynasty, the academic circles were always overly affirming the side of the Jinshi and the officials who had been given the opportunity to get preferential treatment. In fact, the lower officials who were still at the rank of selecting candidates such as Sun Ying Shi were more and more popular in the Southern Song Dynasty. The Wuyi documents of the Southern Song Dynasty in recent years were fully verified by Xu Weili. It is through the hook of Sun Ying Shi officialdom network that the author thinks that the so-called "change the official procedure" is the witness of officials' interpersonal relationship, and further reminds that "interpersonal relationship plays a key role in the recommendation." (84 pages) 。 In his speech in 2018, the study on the history of the Southern Song Dynasty started again, he called for studying the bureaucratic system of the Southern Song Dynasty. It is far from enough to attach importance to the imperial examination system.


Four


Officialdom network has its special value in the study of bureaucratic system, but it must be placed in a meticulous and dynamic grasp under the circumstances of specific situations, so we must not make constant static understanding of it. The interpersonal network formed by Shi Hao and Shi Miyuan and his sons and daughters is very important for the leader. The author traced the whole process of their interaction with Sun Ying Shi's life track, and revealed the intimate interaction between them. It is the diachronic tracing of the official network of the host. The author thinks: when Sun Ying is in urgent need of official entry, Shi Hao has been old enough to be a senior official, but the history is far from being known. "Historians and fathers are unable to help Sun Yu in a positive way, and are unable to resolve the dilemma faced by Sun Yingshi in the face of sudden political changes." (266 pages) It is a close contact with Shi Shi, who invited him to enter the curtain and finally made "break through the dilemma of official career". Sun Ying Shi also helped Qiu Qiu achieve the imperial mission of suppressing Wu's power. After that, he was first rehabilitated and commended. (265 pages) 。 The author returned the relationship between Sun Yingshi and Shi Mi Yuan to the two of them in the context of the times. (242 pages) The conclusion is unquestionable.

Shi Hao

Shi Yuan Yuan

With the sudden change in the political situation, the official network and academic network will inevitably be fiercely shocked. Its members will also start from their own situation and value standpoint, and choose their respective causes, so that the original network structure will be abruptly differentiated and reintegrated. In the middle history of the Southern Song Dynasty, the party's ban on celebrating the Qing Dynasty witnessed by Sun Yingshi was not only the most violent political earthquake, but also directly affected the fate of Daoism. The author has made a comprehensive decision on the diversity of faces presented by the master and his fellow colleagues in this great change, which not only shows the richness and complexity of history, but also dynamically reacts the impact and turbulence of officialdom network and academic network. When the Political Bureau suddenly changed and the party's ban was on the rise, it was when Sun Ying had just removed the rank and the new Jin Guan. In view of the fact that the former official network's Olympic aid came out, the lower officials and Taoist followers of the bureaucratic system could maintain their official career and keep their distance from the old acquaintance of the old network. (86 pages) They even seek to rely on the participants of the party's ban and relieve their difficulties. And the situation of the party's ban was slightly relieved. He took the initiative to contact the teachers and friends of Zhu Xi and Qiu Qiu in the original network. When he was in charge of Changshu, he was still committed to local education and academic inheritance. Due to the strong impact of the party's power after the party's ban, Sun Ying was eventually impeachment. When he was in a drastic change of political situation, he felt helpless because of no one in the court. The kind of weighing between the Taoist ideal and his official career was a vivid example of the frustration and frustration of the little ones in the great changes. Under the traditional autocratic regime, it is hard for us to feel the same way of dealing with the unsettled and uncontrollable fate of the political tyranny.

The party's ban on Qingyuan is not only a test for Sun Ying Shi, but also for his fellow colleagues in his network. They selected five middle and lower officials from the officialdom network and academic network of the host, deeply reviewed and evaluated their coping strategies and their fate: Lv Zujian died of demoralising because of indignation and struggled to get rid of the embarrassment, but did not protect the reputation. Ishi Muneaki adjusted his position and continued his official career. Zhou Nan swung up and down with the left and right sides. Wang Chao kept up with the ups and downs of the Olympic Games. At the same time, with the interaction between the host and them, he projected the situation of the general bureaucrats in the storm of the party ban from an individual angle, revealing the face that the former group focused on group studies. Write (192 pages) 。 In the face of the same political turmoil, it is quite complicated and subtle to decide whether a leader or his academic friend should adopt different coping styles. He has both the drive of personality and concept, the influence of family and teacher, and the individual's unique circumstances and status. (238 Pages)

Through the dynamic study of the network of officialdom in Qingyuan's party ban, the author highlights two faces which have long been neglected by academia. First, the "personal fate and group relationship" of this great change participant is not the consistent and two opposite of the traditional research. Instead, different individuals have adopted a multiple response strategy through their respective interpersonal networks to cope with the changes in the political situation. The situation is quite complicated. They strongly questioned the deep opposition between the two groups of Taoism and bureaucrats, which led the later generations to discuss the mode of Party ban on Qingyuan. (237 pages) 。 Second, in this political struggle, the senior officials who have already had academic status and family background are obviously more strongly affected by officials in the lower and middle levels. They lack strong family support and abundant human resources, "it is understandable to carry out relations or evade old sources" in order to spread risks and avoid crimes. (240 Pages) 。 It is true that when the party is forbidden to come and go unexpectedly, it is not easy to say that a decent man can not escape. But the most disaffected person is not Zhu Xi, a famous figure who is so famous. Instead, he is a nobody who relies on Sun Yingshi. Under the totalitarian system, similar historical phenomena are often repeated and repeated.


Five


As a biography of research type, Sun Yingshi's attributes and brushwork are all historiographical, but he does not neglect the historical value of literary poetry. In the appendix "Sun Yingshi's life and Book chronology", there are several poems in the Department of history. It is with the help of the poems of the successor that the author succeeds in identifying the relationship between teachers and students. However, according to the author's limited reading of Wen Yuan GE's "candle Lake collection", it is found that many poems can be compiled into annex "Book chronology" after examination, and there is still room for advancement in the history of poetry and the use of poetry.

This space is mainly in two aspects. First, complement the specific historical facts. For example, Chun Xi nine years (1182), Sun Ying Shi on the Huangyan Wei Ren and the lifting of the East Zhejiang Changping Zhu Xi, "one see and make friends", at that time, Zhu Xizheng impeached Taizhou Tang Zhongyou. At the same time, as an official of the two sides, when the leader handed in with Zhu Xi, he wrote poems to praise Tang Zhongyou for building bridges and benefiting the people, and gave the highest point of praise: "the people keep me hou, dare to contend with the emperor, my emperor, my Hou, brow no life." (candle Lake collection volume fourteen "Jiang Youliang") In the dispute between Zhu and Tang, he favours the left side. "Candle Lake collection" volume fifteen "send Zhang Jingfu," five, remember the close contact with Zhang, there are "affinity to follow the teacher", "holding the classics and asking questions" and other details, but also can pull up the successor of the Suen county magistrate when the Zhang Shili temple's emotional link. Shaoxi four years (1193), Sun Yingshi took office as a government office, followed by Qiu Qiu into the Sichuan, is indeed the highlight and turning point of his career, the author has also tried to identify the successor to eliminate Wu Xi's hereditary attempt and almost annihilated. There are a large number of poems into Sichuan. If we can make full use of them, we can further highlight the close relationship between Sun Ying and Qiu Qiu (for example, "the system of painting and drawing thanks to Kangle's body", which can be roughly restored to the traces of Shu (the three volumes and the lines of poetry can be used). It can also make the best of its relaxed mood. (cited poetry has "the next guest is lucky, the road is not a worry". Volume nineteen, "the secretary is invited to the general diet"), "the rest of the wine is very drunk, to call the spring breeze back to night," is a good example. But "candle Lake collection" volume fifteen, seventeen, nineteen Obviously, these poems help to explore Sun Ying's interpersonal network.

Second, it has a hidden mentality. When the party is forbidden to avoid words, some of the non remuneration poems are concealed with the most secret mentality, and their values are more valuable than letters. For example, when the Qingyuan party banned the party, Sun Ying was careful to protect himself, and sought to rely on others. It was hard to get the vacancy of Changshu county. "Candle Lake collection" volume seventeen "in March 8th to the official Changshu" and "nine days from the Liao to the broken mountain to drink the oath of the Qing Pavilion" is done at this time, one said, "eunuch is really diffuse, the world road is also leisurely; cause fish thousands of miles, articles of water a cup"; and then said "thin eunuch surprised clutch, floating life is drunk to wake up; next year should talk to me, thousands of miles and more mountains and green", sigh the cause of emptiness, thin eunuchs startled, drunk to wake up to know, want to return, great changes under the complex and bitter and astringent confused state of mind. Another example is the fifteen self alarm of the Yuan Dynasty. The original note was made in Geng Shen, and it was just six years (1200) of the Qing Dynasty.

Wang Chunzhao was so angry that he did not dare to know his fate.
Forty-six years, Kyo Masahito.
In the first place, you must keep your heart and respect yourself.
This is not to be bullied by the gods.

In spite of the severity of the party's ban and the "unknown fate", he should not change his mind of "beginning his heart", not deceive the gods, and respect himself. This kind of cognition of adhering to the bottom line can also illustrate the problem. The "self police", which is followed in the next paragraph, is also used in the party's ban.

Anger or liver or cleft, fear can be broken.
I am blessed with no bitterness.
Everything is in vain, and the valley is noisy.
It can make the moon eclipse, but it will be ants.

The fear of the party's ban is described in the first two sentences, and is even described by the liver and gallbladder. The second two sentences are lucky to escape, but no pain is denied. Five or six, the expression of helplessness is chosen, or even contrary to what is spoken, doing something against the heart. Finally, lamenting that when the situation reverses, it is as small as an ant on the millstone, and it can only be changed with grinding. In such a historical wind, little people's heart and soul are not afraid to reveal themselves even when they write to friends. "Candle Lake collection" volume fourteen "reading Zhu Huiweng's tragic works" is about six years in Qingyuan (1200) after the first year of the Jia Tai (1201) after Zhu Xisi. In his poem, he praised "the gentleman is carrying thousands of people, the spirit is poor and the poor soil". In the end, he poured out the words "a hundred years are not known, often like a waiter's letter," and privately expressed his pursuit of Zhu Xi, and his mind should not be ignored. If we can read out all the poetical works of candlestick collection, try to identify the year of the year as much as possible, and perhaps even be able to expose the complex state of mind and confusion and helplessness in the dramatic changes of the political scene, and touch his emotional impulse as a little man.

As an academic biography, "Sun Yingshi" highlights a changing era with a marginal character. He grasped the theme of the social and political era and accomplished the goal of the study. It has a demonstration value for the history of Song Dynasty, especially for the study of the history of the Southern Song Dynasty. This demonstration value mainly lies in studying the Enlightenment of the French and academic approaches, rather than advocating the simple imitation of this type of research in academic circles, so as to compose monographs of marginal biographies. The prerequisites for the study of characters must have enough historical materials, such as Sun Ying Shi's rich collection, which is sufficient for the research of the marginal figures in the Song Dynasty. If a successor wishes to emulate the author's skillful shortcut, copying a similar case study is not impossible, but it should not be too extravagant.

It also leads to another layer of feeling. The biographies of monographs or papers belong to the category of individual cases. They have specific restrictions on style and content. They belong to the example method in historical methods. In conclusion, with the help of a typical case, if it can be mutually verified with group studies, its universality will be even higher. In Sun Yingshi, the author's special column studies the response and fate of the five school friends in the party's ban on change. It is intended not only to set people's cases in the group network, but also to break through the barriers of cases and display the diverse faces of the group. The choice of author's image obviously contains the meaning of type, but it can not replace the comprehensive study of the bureaucrats in the middle and lower levels of the party's ban. To point out this point is not to require Sun Yingshi to undertake additional tasks, but to emphasize the study of bureaucrats in the middle and lower levels, and to study marginal groups, and the method of group induction still has its own advantages. And group research must gather enough sample data. It is necessary to distinguish all types of samples carefully, and then introduce appropriate methods, such as dynamic investigation or statistics, so that the judgement obtained can be compared with the conclusions drawn from typical cases such as Sun Yingshi, which will be able to more effectively correct past prejudices, thus approaching the reality of history.




Yu Yun Guo

Department of history, Shanghai Normal University



END.


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Chinese:虞云国读《孙应时的学宦生涯》︱以小人物摹写大时局